Friday, May 31, 2019

Artists in Stained Glass :: Essays Papers

Artists in Stained GlassI.CONCRETE EXPERIENCEI commend my interest in the combination of glass, light and wring began as a child when I discovered the colorful images created inside a kaleidoscope. Even as an adult, I cannot seem to resist picking up a kaleidoscope and gazing into the viewer as I rotate the tube to change the design of the colored bits of glass. If you walk into my home, it is apparent that I like to decorate with glass. I have glass flowers, marbles, stones, vases, balls, bowls and my favorite, stained glass.I have stained glass windows, birds, flowers, night-lights, candle holders, picture frames, and a jewelry box. I like to go steady the various arts and craft festivals and shows in Tulsa so I can enjoy the stained glass art created by the local artisans. In November 1999, I went to the Stained Glass Guilds annual sale and purchased my first large piece of stained glass. It was a beautiful blue, yellow, green and red floral piece. I had p urchased some(prenominal) smaller floral pieces in 1998 at Tulsas Arts and Craft Fall Festival at Tulsa State Fairgrounds and I knew it would look beautiful surrounded by the smaller pieces.I purchased my stained glass windows at the Haskell Antique Auction in 2000. They were removed from a building in England and I like to think that they survived the bombings during World War II and now they hang inside my home. I would not say an exceptionally talented artisan created the windows but the pattern in the glass is unique. The colors sparkle and bring a certain charm to my kitchen and eat nook, especially on cold winter days.I recently remodeled my kitchen, breakfast nook and formal dining area. I installed new counters, wallpaper, border, artwork and flooring. In my spare time, I have been working with two friends to make a stained glass still life to hang between the doorway to the formal dining area and the kitchen, breakfast nook area. We made the pattern from the wallpaper border, which depicts a wine bottle, cheese, basket of fruit and some flowers sitting on a counter. The piece has over 200 pieces of cut glass and we are about two-thirds finished.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide :: essays research papers

Empirical Formula of Magnesium OxideDateAim The aim of this experiment was to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide. Equipment BalanceCrucible and eye lidBunsen burnerMagnesium ribbon (0.2g)Steel woolCrucible tongsPipe clay triangleTripodProcedure 1. happen a clean, dry crucible and lid, past heat them for approximately 5 minutes over a Bunsen burner2.Clean the surface of a 20 cm strip of magnesium ribbon using steel wool3.Coil the magnesium ribbon, so that it fits into the crucible4.Weigh crucible and lid on a balance, and record the mass5.Place magnesium ribbon into crucible, replace the lid and weigh once more6.Heat the crucible and its content with the lid off until the magnesium begins to glow7.Replace the lid and heat the crucible strongly8.Continue to heat the crucible, occasionally lifting the lid with tongs to provide oxygen for the reaction9.When all magnesium has reacted, remove the lid and heat strongly for 5 minutes10.Replace crucible lid and allow to cool11.Reweigh the crucible with its contents and lidObservations Once the magnesium was in the crucible and was beingness heated by the Bunsen burner, it glowed for a brief time. It then caught fire before the lid was placed on top. When it came into contact with the oxygen, the magnesium started glowing extremely bright, and intensely white. The glow became orange after some time. The magnesium ribbon then turned white.ResultsMass of crucible and lid29.9 gMass of crucible, lid and magnesium30.1 gMass of magnesium0.2 gMass of crucible, lid and magnesium oxide30.3 gMass of magnesium oxide0.4 gMass of oxygen combined with magnesium 0.2 gQuestions1. a) The mass of magnesium which reacted was 0.2 grams.b) The mass of oxygen that combined with the magnesium was 0.2 g.2. What is the empirical formula of magnesium oxide?Mg0.2 g0.224.310.0080.0081=2O0.2 g0.2160.01250.0081.56 =3Thus the empirical formula of Magnesium Oxide is Mg O .3. Why are the crucible and lid heated at the beginnin g of the experiment before being weighed?The crucible and lid are heated at the beginning of the experiment before being weighed so that any moisture in the crucible is burned away. Moisture is heavy, and thus it can change the results of the experiment, as we only want the weight of magnesium and the magnesium oxide.4. What are the possible sources of error in this experiment?Possible sources of error in this experiment include the inaccuracy of measurements, as correct measurements are decisive for the experiment.The loss of magnesium oxide smoke can also be counted as a possible source of error if you should lose some of the smoke, there would be a less amount of magnesium oxide than expected at the end of the experiment.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The Hundred years war Essay -- essays research papers fc

THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR1337-1453The Hundred Years warfare was the last great gothic war. It was a war not just between Kings, but lesser nobles were also able to pursue their own individual(prenominal) agendas while infracticipating in the larger conflict. Future wars saw far less factionalism, at least on the scale found in medieval conflicts. The Hundred Years War was actually dozens of little wars and hundreds of battles and sieges that went on for over a century until both sides were exhausted. While neither side win in any real sense, the end result was that while there were two faggotdoms at the beginning of the war, there were two nations at the end of it. In 1337, most of the English nobility spoke cut, although most knew enough English to deal with their subjects. When Duke William of Normandy conquered Eng destroy in 1066, he did so as a French noble. further since Duke William had conquered a kingdom, he had become king of England while remaining duke of Normandy. Du ke William also replaced nearly all the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy with French nobles. During the next two centuries, the French speaking English kings acquired even more property in France. Finally, in the 13th century, a particularly able French king took most of this land away from the English king. But by the early 14th century, two French provinces, Gascony and Guyenne, were still ruled by the English king, and in 1337 the French king Philip the 6th demanded that these provinces be returned to French control. The English king, Edward the 3rd , did not want to violate the feudal bonds that united all of Europe by defying Philip, his feudal master key for those provinces. So Edward challenged Philips claim to the French throne, asserting that his own claim (which did in fact exist) was superior. Thus the war began, with Philip the 6th claiming the right to appoint French nobles as rulers of Gascony and Guyenne, and Edward the 3rd claiming that he was the rightful king of France and England.There were other issues involved. England had major financial interests in the wool industry in Flanders (then a part of France) and France supported the Scots in their wars against England. Moreover, England had b... ...les daughter. The son of this marriage (Henry the 6th) would be the king of France and England. It looked as though England had finally won. But the disinherited Dauphin continued to resist. Henry the fifth unexpectedly died in August 1422, followed in October by Charles the 6th , with the nine month old Henry the 6th not yet ready to arrive the two crowns. Despite the efforts of Henry the 5ths able brothers to hold things together. Joan of Arc came and went. The Burgundians turned on their English allies, and by 1453, the French, aided by these developments and the increasing professionalism of their army had driven the English from the Continent. This gave the English a few years to get ready for the War of the Roses, while the French took care of some internal problems and got ready for the kickoff of many invasions of Italy.Bibliography- Contamine, Philippe, War in the Middle Ages (1984)- WWW. TheHundredYearsWarHistoryHomePage.Com

Viral Infections :: essays research papers

VIRAL INFECTIONS THE TRUE WHYS AND WHAT NOWS It either started with a little titillation in my throat. I forged ahead, loveing all too well what that feeling meant, I was getting sick. I convinced myself to just non gauge astir(predicate) it and it would just go away. This whole beat there was an army of alien species amassing in my bloodstream and older cells. They are horrifyingly ugly, like something groovy come out of the closet of H. R. Geigers imagination. They writhe and twitch while they are on the hunt for one of your precious body cells. One can almost approximate them emit to one another "Thats the one fellas, that is the cell we whirl into Fort Viri". Then they attack, attaching their bodies to the cells only defense, its outer wall. The chancy viri know this dance all too well, the cell has no chance. All too quickly the viri convince the cell, via complex chemical codes to admit the viri into its life blood, the cytoplasm. short they would turn th is doomed cell into a computer virus nursery, churning out countless clones of the virus that converted the original cell. I now must let go myself to the situation that I have somehow come into contact with a virus and it has started to multiply in my body. By now the symptoms are undeniable and all encompassing. I have the flu. Viral infections are caused by a forces organism taking in and precipitating the reproduction of viruses. These infections bring with them a miriad of symtoms including, exclusively not restricted to fever, general achiness, increased mucous production, and general sluggishness. This entire chain of events starts when a person comes into contact with a virus. This can happen a add together of ways contact with infected body fluids, contact with the mucous membranes of an infected person, and even inhalation of airborne viri. When one comes into contact with a virus, it wastes no time in making your body its new home. It quickly finds a body cell to rep roduce in, usually in the body formation in which it found access to the body. For example a virus that is inhaled will usually take up residence in the lungs or throat of the host animal. Since the virus has no internal reproductive system, it finds a cell to invade and latches on to its cellular membrane. It does this using specialized protein chains, these act as flyspeck fish hooks permanently attaching the virus to the host cell.Viral Infections essays research papers VIRAL INFECTIONS THE TRUE WHYS AND WHAT NOWS It all started with a little tickling in my throat. I forged ahead, knowing all too well what that feeling meant, I was getting sick. I convinced myself to just not think about it and it would just go away. This whole time there was an army of alien species amassing in my bloodstream and older cells. They are horrifyingly ugly, like something straight out of H. R. Geigers imagination. They writhe and twitch while they are on the hunt for one of your precious body cells. One can almost imagine them squealing to one another "Thats the one fellas, that is the cell we turn into Fort Viri". Then they attack, attaching their bodies to the cells only defense, its outer wall. The cunning viri know this dance all too well, the cell has no chance. All too quickly the viri convince the cell, via complex chemical codes to admit the viri into its life blood, the cytoplasm. Soon they would turn this doomed cell into a virus nursery, churning out countless clones of the virus that converted the original cell. I now must resign myself to the fact that I have somehow come into contact with a virus and it has started to multiply in my body. By now the symptoms are undeniable and all encompassing. I have the flu. Viral infections are caused by a host organism taking in and precipitating the reproduction of viruses. These infections bring with them a miriad of symtoms including, but not restricted to fever, general achiness, increased mucous production, and general sluggishness. This entire chain of events starts when a person comes into contact with a virus. This can happen a number of ways contact with infected body fluids, contact with the mucous membranes of an infected person, and even inhalation of airborne viri. When one comes into contact with a virus, it wastes no time in making your body its new home. It quickly finds a body cell to reproduce in, usually in the body system in which it found access to the body. For example a virus that is inhaled will usually take up residence in the lungs or throat of the host animal. Since the virus has no internal reproductive system, it finds a cell to invade and latches on to its cellular membrane. It does this using specialized protein chains, these act as tiny fishing hooks permanently attaching the virus to the host cell.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Excessive Enforcement: A Call for a Tranformational Approach to the Caribbean Criminal Justice System :: Argumentative Persuasive Carribean Essays

A Call for a Tranformational Approach to the Caribbean Criminal Justice System On June 25, 2001 Anton cooper, a xxvii year old man in police custody at Golden Grove Prison in Arocca, Trinidad, was found naked and dead in his cell less than twenty four hours after his arrival for allegedly beating a cousin during an argument. Several prisoners reported witnessing numerous assaults on Cooper by prison guards, and Amnesty International called for a thorough, independent investigation that complies with international standards, including access by relatives to autopsy proceedings that concluded that Cooper died from swooning associated with multiple blunt traumatic injuries. Amnesty International has repeatedly expressed condemnation of the use of excessive force by law enforcement officers, and have give tongue to that prison conditions in Trinidad continued to violate the UN standards for minimum treatment of prisoners, as well as amounted to cruel, in human beingse and degradi ng treatment. This particular incident raises to the international community not only questions of the level of corruption in Trinidads penal system, but how this reflects the enforcement of human rights protection in the English speaking Caribbean. In align to understand the role the justice system plays in advancing (or inhibiting) the Caribbean socially, economically, and politically, it is necessary to reflect on the historical uses and abuses of the penal system and how it functions alongside international sinful law. When analyzing the level of development nations of the English speaking Caribbean, specifically Trinidad & Tobago and Jamaica, have made in regards to human rights and law enforcement, certain factors need to be considered including their history of human rights protection the role incarceration, flogging, and the death penalty play in limiting them as people of the past the lack of community involvement in discriminatory affairs their relations with inter national non-governmental organizations and the feasibility of possible alternatives to imprisonment and the death penalty. Although this past March the East Caribbean Court of Appeal, referred to by the Judiciary Committee of the privy Council, ruled that mandatory death penalty is in violation of the constitutions of St. Vincent and Grenadines, St. Lucia, Grenada, St. Kitts, Dominica, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda by stating that, to deny the offender the opportunity, before sentence is passed, to seek to persuade the court that in all the circumstances to condemn him to death would be disproportionate and inappropriate

Excessive Enforcement: A Call for a Tranformational Approach to the Caribbean Criminal Justice System :: Argumentative Persuasive Carribean Essays

A Call for a Tranformational Approach to the Caribbean Criminal Justice System On June 25, 2001 Anton Cooper, a xx-seven year old human beings in police custody at Golden Grove Prison in Arocca, Trinidad, was found naked and dead in his cell less than twenty four hours after his arrival for allegedly beating a cousin during an argument. Several prisoners reported witnessing numerous assaults on Cooper by prison guards, and forbearance International called for a thorough, independent investigation that complies with supranational standards, including access by relatives to autopsy proceedings that concluded that Cooper died from asphyxia associated with multiple blunt traumatic injuries. Amnesty International has repeatedly expressed destineation of the use of excessive force by law enforcement officers, and have stated that prison conditions in Trinidad act to violate the UN standards for minimum treatment of prisoners, as well as amounted to cruel, inhumane and degrading t reatment. This particular incident raises to the international community not only questions of the take of corruption in Trinidads penal system, but how this reflects the enforcement of human rights protection in the side speaking Caribbean. In order to understand the role the justness system plays in advancing (or inhibiting) the Caribbean socially, economically, and politically, it is necessary to reflect on the historical uses and abuses of the penal system and how it functions alongside international criminal law. When analyzing the level of development nations of the English speaking Caribbean, specifically Trinidad & Tobago and Jamaica, have made in regards to human rights and law enforcement, certain factors need to be considered including their history of human rights protection the role incarceration, flogging, and the shoemakers last penalty play in limiting them as people of the past the lack of community involvement in judicial affairs their relations with interna tional non-governmental organizations and the feasibility of possible alternatives to imprisonment and the expiration penalty. Although this past March the East Caribbean Court of Appeal, referred to by the Judiciary Committee of the Privy Council, ruled that mandatory death penalty is in violation of the constitutions of St. Vincent and Grenadines, St. Lucia, Grenada, St. Kitts, Dominica, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda by stating that, to deny the offender the opportunity, before sentence is passed, to seek to persuade the court that in all the circumstances to condemn him to death would be disproportionate and inappropriate

Monday, May 27, 2019

Analysis on Kings “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop

Not entirely to have an ordinary obstetrical delivery, but one that grasps batch and pulls them in all you need to have is persuasion in any case known as Ethos, Logos, and Pathos. Ethos refers to the speakers credibility. There are three important characteristics character, competence and charisma. Logos is evidence that supports any claim the speaker makes in their speech. Pathos is known as a strong component of successful persuasion. Pathos is also when you appeal to the listeners emotions. Verbal communication is the exchange of meanings by the use of the written or spoken symbols of a language.Non literal communication is includes any symbolic demeanor that is either intentionally or unintentionally sent. I believe the speech Ive Been to the Mountaintop given By Dr. Martin Luther King is a great example of Ethos, Logos, and Pathos, verbal and non verbal communication. This speech, was giving on April 3, 1968 at the Mason Temple in Memphis, Tennessee, This was Martin Luth er Kings last public appearance before his assassination the following day. Ive been to the mountaintop was a strong and influential sermon.Martin Luther male monarch has a moral character has proven to the people that he is a serious man and very trustworthy. When people hang at him they could see that kings beliefs were not a joke to him. The Baptist minister was an activist and was a leader in the African American civil rights movement. King helped free-base the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957. In his speech he asks the people to take their notes out of downtown banks and deposit their money in Tri-State Bankfor a bank in movement. Kings says Im not asking you something that we dont do ourselves at SCLC. Were just telling you to follow what were doing. From this you can see that he basically was saying that you can trust him. The logistics he uses to support his claim come from his fellowship of history.King talked about going back to 1863 to watch Abraham Lincoln, come to the conclusion to sign the emancipation proclamation. Later in the speech he empathizes that the people are unfortunate but he says collectively we are richer than all the nations in the world, We have an annual income of more than thirty billion dollars a year. These are just a few of these statistics he uses to back up everything he talks about. To fully grab the listeners attention in a speech you have to show emotion. Martin Luther king did this by talking about his experiences of what happened to him from doing what he believes in. King talks about how he remembers when they were in a majestic struggle, He revels to us the complication he and others face while they moved on, king said we Would move out day after day by the hundreds we would move out. It shows the people that he truly does care for their right and nothing would stop him.In his speech Martin Luther King also talks about how the marching landed them in jail but and they just kept on singing and how it moved everyone around them. This is the kind of things that sweep people right into your speech. The using of words in a speech is what shows the intelligence and understanding that a speaker upholds. When we communicate, we need to put ourselves in our listeners shoes. The way that Martin Luther Kings words carry out was more than just a speech, it was more like a sermon. His words were true but never cruel.King did put himself out there and showed everyone that they were not alone. His words had hope and that hope grabbed his listeners. Nonverbal communication, or body language, is a vital form of communication. When we interact with others, we continuously give and receive countless wordless signals. This is what makes us or breaks us. Martin Luther king stood tall and sublime through out his speech when you looked at him you saw that he looked very serious but sincere. Kind would take short pauses in his speech and just look out to everyone. This is what king did to get his listeners attention.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Locke and Hobbes Essay

How does the founders view of power affect the framers reactions to John Locke? According to Locke, how does man enter the political society and what is the purpose of that society? What obligations does the governance receive in the civil society? What obligation does the individual have? How do Hobbes and Locke differ? Do you think Americans would agree with Locke? You may read the first paragraphs of the annunciation of Independence to assist you. What evidence do you have to support your view?The founders believed that the power of government should be limited, so it doesnt trample on peoples inborn rights. The framers thus wrote in guarantees that the government could not usurp individual freedoms. Locke believed that citizens gave their consent to the government so that society would operate freely and safely. Government should ensure relate opportunity and protection of political and property rights. The individual is obligated to participate in the political process, but abide by the governments rules. Hobbes is more than pessimistic about how violent the state of nature would be and is therefore willing to give the government more power than Locke is. Yes, Americans seem happy that the government has power, but individuals retain rights as well. Unlike many countries, the United States has never had a revolt against its government in the last 200 years (The civilian War was something very different.)

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Writing and Bio-organic Chemistry Review

HAD cholesterol (good) Bio-organic Chemistry come off Sheet Ill What is an base-forming? What is an alkaline? Ill. What are some common alikeness? IV. How to you make an alkaline? V. What is the mechanism of the addition of HEX across a double bond? Bio-organic Chemistry Review Sheet 3 (continued) VI. What is the mechanism of the addition offs across a double bond? The reactions of alikeness (attach index cards here) This tip for improving your SAT whip was provided by David Greensward at Verities Prep.For many college applicants, the essay is the most dreaded portion of the SAT. Many students believe that a good essay requires time to buzz off into something that envoys nuanced ground of the material. Although time and skill are useful in writing a dissertation, the SAT essay is much more formulaic and simply requires an understanding of how to produce a passable piece of persuasive writing that can function with nearly every prompt. Here are three keys to creating a systemati c completelyy excellent essay on the SAT 1 . Create a template before you write an essay.BLOB How to Improve Your SAT Essay Writing fundamentally all persuasive writing has the same characteristics. The goal is to take a position on some question and support that position with evidence, which can expeditiously be accomplished in a five paragraph essay (an existence, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion). For this reason, one can essentially write the cram of the essay before one roll in the hays what the topic of the essay is. The easiest way to accomplish this is to write a bona-fide practice essay that you feel is strong and then draw all the specific references to the topic.For example, say you were writing a thesis statement on the topic of whether or not it is better for a leader to be feared or loved. (Much great writing already exists on this expansive topic, but we dont have to be Plato here. A thesis might say Therefore the avowal that being loved is a more powerful motivator for achieving a leaders desired goals than being feared is demonstrably true. This is a strong thesis and could essentially be boiled down to therefore the assertion that position on topic is demonstrably true. Voila This is a thesis that can essentially work for any specific topic. From here on, all that needs to be done is to create a prototypical essay and remove all the specifics. This essay template works especially well for the introduction and conclusion, but the next tip is very helpful for the body paragraphs. . Relate topic sentences and non-personal examples back to the thesis. It is a little harder to completely script the body paragraphs, as these will be connect to whatever examples you choose to include.The magic ticket in the body paragraphs, however, is to relate what you are writing back to your thesis. For instance, if one of your examples for the above topic of whether a leader should be feared or loved is Animal Farm, it is not strong to simply sum marize the book. For example Animal Farm is the boloney of how animals rise up against an unjust system, only to emulate the system they so despise. Not a bad summary of Animal Farm, but if graders want to know what happens in that book, they Just read it. Graders want to know how the example will be related back to the thesis.A better take is The eventual societal change integrity and uprising of the subjugated animals in George Rowels Animal Farm demonstrates the danger of a leader being feared, as opposed to being loved. This is much more related to the main thesis of the essay. Also, make sure your examples are from something outside personal experience it is far stronger to apply learning than to apply anecdotes on the SAT. BLOB imbibe Your Practice Count 3. Write as if you were creating sentences for the multiple choice questions.This is a surprisingly effective tool in ensuring stylistic and grammatical clarity on the SAT. Students devote quite a bit of time to learning p otential errors on the multiple choice writing questions, but it does not always go across to them to put their own writing under the same scrutiny. All the guidelines for correct sentences can be applied to personal writing Use active voice, square off for subject verb agreement, be clear, and the list goes on and on. If the same precision applied to the writing ultimate choice questions is applied to this essay, grammar and clarity will not be issues.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Google Book Case Essay

Ancient Ages The Royal library of Alexandria, or Ancient depository library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world. The program library is famous for having been burned, resulting in the loss of m both scrolls and books, and has become a symbol of knowledge and culture destroyed. A single piece of writing might occupy several(prenominal) scrolls, and this division into self-contained books was a major aspect of editorial work. King Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309246 BC) is said to have set 500,000 scrolls as an objective for the library.17 Mark Antony purportedly gaveCleopatra over 200,000 scrolls (taken from the great subroutine library of Pergamum) for the library as a wedding gift Ancient Ages Egyptian Papyrus After extracting the marrow from the stems, a series of steps (humidification, pressing, drying, gluing, and cutting), produced media of variable quality, the best being rehearsed for sacred writing. Dresden C odex The only before foresightful deciphered complete writing system in the Americas is the Maya scroll.The Maya, along withseveral other cultures in Mesoamerica,constructed concertina-style books written on Amatl paper. Nearly all Mayan schoolbooks were destroyed by the Spanish during colonization on cultural and religious grounds. One of the a few(prenominal) surviving examples is the Dresden Codex. A Chinese Bamboo obtain Writing on bone, shells, wood and silk existed in China long before the 2nd century BC.Paper was invented in China around the 1st century AD. 3 4 Middle Ages At the end of the Middle Ages, in a small town in the Rhine Valley, an unassuming metalworker tinkered with a rickety wine press, metal alloys and oil-based ink.The result of his labors was an invention that took the worlds teaching and made it exponentially much ready to hand(predicate) and expenditureful. Google Corporate Website on Johannes Gutenberg1 Handwritten notes by Christopher Columbus o n the Latin edition of Marco Polos Le livre des merveilles. Modern Ages Among a series of developments that occurred in the 1990s, the spread of digital multimedia, which encodes texts, images, animations, and sounds in a unique and simple form was notable for the book publishing industry. Hypertext further improved access to information. Finally, the internet take down production and distribution monetary values.An electronic book (variously e-book, eBook, ebook, digital book, or even e-edition) is a book-length publication in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, and produced on, published through, and readable on computers or other electronic artifices. Modern Book Printing sculpture, showing a pile of modern codex books. First scared book in Georgian was published in Rome, in 1629 by Niceforo Isbachi 5 6 1 10/7/2013 No. of Books in History Technological Advancement US-published print book manifestations, by publication date (1900-2008)* 7 8 General Statistics Ma rket Share & Penetration9 10 What happen in the U. S. Book Market E-Book Adoption by Worlds Regions 11 12 2 10/7/2013 How reader discover books? E-Book vs Print-Book 13 14 af just among the best Battle among the best 15 16 A Visual Look at There is nothing much fun than doing that work 17 18 3 10/7/2013 Mission & Goal A Visual Look at A Visual Look at Googles mission is to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful. In order to accomplish this goal, Google stresses two main ideals (a) always emphasis on the user and (b) in that location is always more information out there.bring all the worlds information to users drawking answers. In the involvement of the user, Google aims to 19 20 Ethical Commitment A Visual Look at A Visual Look at Googles basic good commitments were famously captured in its early This motto, which frames Googles Code of motto Conduct and looking clearly over its shoulder at Microsoft stands for its recognition that everything we do in connection with our work at Google forget be, and should be, measured against the highest possible standards of ethical business conduct. Dont be evil. 21 22 Where it all begins In 2002, Larry Page start this question.Where it all begins How long it would take to scan every book in the world ? After conducting their experiment, Page and team distinct to live the country to understand how existing digitization projects worked and how Google could use its technology to improve these efforts. To answer the question, Page and his team experimented on a 300-page book with a high-re resultant role camera and a musical metronome We took the pictures to the beat of the metronome so he wouldnt be taking pictures of my thumbs. University of Michigan, the most precise estimation for scanning UMs university library (7 million volumes) was1,000 years. million books. 24 By 2010 Google had scanned more than 12 23 4 10/7/2013 The Partner Program The Partner Program kit and boodle with authors and publishers to form a technological database of physically represented knowledge and to transfer this knowledge into a saucily digital format for use by upcoming generations.In the users interest, each book added is one closer to Googles overarching goal The Library undertaking The Library go through Google has continued working with major libraries to embroil their volumes in Google Books. The Library go out serves users the same way a card catalog would.The Library hold functions as a tool to connect readers to applicable texts, some(prenominal) of which are out of copyright and would otherwise be impossible to sustain. Jo Guldi, a University of calcium (UC) doctoral candidate, proclaims, This is huge. She explains that UCs sectionalizationnership with Google Book Search allows scholars, students, and skill to search through UC Librarys 5 million books on reap rather than having to laboriously search through 28 miles of universal access to o rganized information that is not partial or mutated.The Gulf War Chronicles, after entered into Google Book Search, sales rankingjumped on the Barnes & Nobles index by 85%. 25 shelves. 26 The Library reckon The Library task As the director of one of the dozens of libraries around the world partnering with Google, Harvard University Librarys Sidney Verba believes the Library The Library Project The Case Study Advancement of Mankind powers Inspiration & cable Ethics Project is an undertaking actively capturing the potential of the future The new century presents classic new opportunities for libraries, including Harvards, and for those individuals who use them.The collaboration between major research libraries and Google will create an important public good of benefit to students, teachers, scholars, and readers everywhere. The project harnesses the power of the mesh to allow users to identify books of interest with a precision and at a speed previously unimaginable. The user wi ll then be guided to find books in local libraries or to purchase them from publishers and book vendors. And, for books in the public domain, there will be even broader access. Public Libraries, Universities Authors.Individuals Publishers Liberating or Appropriating 27 28 Discussion Who is harmed by Googles Print Library program? Make a list of harmed groups, and for each group, try to devise a solution that would glide by or lessen the harm. Discussion1 The Library Project Authors smart set Class Action hold The Authors Guild is Americas oldest and largest professional society of published authors, representing more than 8,000 writers. Its stated purpose is to advocate for and support the copyright and contractual interests of published writers. The Guild lobbies on the national and local levels on behalf of all authors on issues much(prenominal) as copyright, tax incomeation, and freedom of expression, and intervenes in publishing disputes. 29 30 5 10/7/2013 Discussion1 The L ibrary Project Authors Guild Class Action Suit Discussion1 The Library Project Not only AG, Not only Google It accused Google of unauthorized scanning and copying of books through its Google Library program By reproducing for itself a copy of those works that are not in the public domain, Google is engaging in a massive copyright infringement.It has infringed, and continues to infringe, the electronic rights of the copyrighted holders of those works . . . Google has inform plans to reproduce the Works for use on its web site in order to attract visitors to its web sites and generate publicize revenue. the American Authors Guild, the Australian ships company of Authors and the Quebec Union of Writers filed a courting on September 12 against five major universities working with Google on their Google books project.As overlayed in the New York Time, the righteousnesssuit asserts that by digitizing, archiving, copying and now publishing the copyrighted works without the authorizat ion of those works rights holders, the universities are engaging in one of the largest infringements in history. The lawsuit is against Google and HathiTrust The Guild claimed the display of these books online resulted in depreciation in the value and ability to license and sell the Works, lost profits and/or opportunities, and 31 damage to their goodwill and reputation. HathiTrust is a large-scale collaborative repository of digital contented from research libraries including content digitized via the Google Books project and mesh Archive digitization initiatives, as sanitary as content digitized locally by libraries. 32 Discussion1 The Library Project Not only AG, Not only Google The authors are seeking to impound approximately 7 Discussion1 The Library Project The LCA Strikes Back million copyrightprotected books that they claim were illegally scanned by Google and handed.over to HathiTrust, a partnership that includes over 50 research institutions and libraries. HathiTrust, which includes institutions such as MIT, Harvard and Johns Hopkins is currently compiling their own digitized library that includes many books to which the authors still hold rights to, according to the Authors Guild. In addition to HathiTrust, their suit takes aim specifically at the University of Michigan where HathiTrust is based, the University of California, the University of Wisconson, inch University and Cornell University.The Library Copyright Alliance (LCA) consists of three major library associations the American Library draw, the Association of Research Libraries, and the Association of College and Research Libraries. The purpose of the LCA is to work toward a unified voice and common strategy for the library community in responding to and developing proposals to amend national and international copyright law and policy for the digital environment. The LCAs mission is to foster global access and clear use of information for creativity, research, and education. 33 34 D iscussion1 The Library Project The LCA Strikes Back Discussion1.The Library Project The LCA Strikes Back Two days after the lawsuit was filed the Library Copyright Alliance condemned AG The case has no merit, and completely disregards the rights of libraries and their users under the law, especially elegant use, The fair use that the LCA is referring to is a legal doctrine that allows the reproduction of copyrighted material under certain circumstances. Even the US Copyright Office admits that the bank note between fair use and infringement may be unclear and not easily defined. There is no specific number of words, lines, or notes that may safely be taken without permission. How the fair use is defined? 35 36 6 10/7/2013 Discussion1 The Library Project American Association of Publishers Lawsuit Discussion1 The Library Project American Association of Publishers Lawsuit The publishing industry is united behind this lawsuit against Google and united in the fight to moderate their rights. While authors and publishers know how useful Googles search engine can be and deliberate the Print Library could be an excellent resource, the bottom line is that under its current plan Google is seeking to make millions of dollars by freeloading on the talent and property of authors and publishers. fit in to an AAP press release, the suit was filed on behalf of five major publisher members of AAP The Association of American Publishers (AAP) is the national trade association of the U. S. book publishing industry, with over 300 members. These include major commercial publishers, as well as smaller and non-profit publishers, university presses, and scholarly societies. The AAP mission is the protection of intellectual property rights in all media, the defense of the freedom to read and the freedom to publish at home and abroad, and the promotion of indication and literacy. 37 38 Discussion1.The Library Project How did Google respond? Discussion1 The Library Project Googles Definition of Fair Use Google further supported its Fair Use argument by asserting the exact premise of the Supreme court explanation in a precedent case. In a section of Googles Books Search website titled, Whats the Issue? , Google defended its stance Google Print is an historic effort to make millions of books easier for hoi polloi to find and buy. Creating an easy to use index of books is fair use under copyright law and supports the purpose of copyright to increase the awareness and sales of books directly benefiting copyright holders.This short-sighted attempt to stoppage Google Print works counter to the interests of not just the worlds readers, but also the worlds authors and publishers. Google issued an official statement Copyright law is supposed to ensure that authors and publishers have an incentive to create new work, not stop people from finding out that the work exists. By helping people find books, we believe we can increase the incentive to publish them. After a ll, if a book isnt discovered, it wont be bought. 39 40 Discussion1 The Library Project How much AG demand? $3 billionThe Authors Guild is seeking $750 in damages for each copyrighted book Google copied, which would cost Google more than $3 billion, Google attorney Seth Waxman said. The guild argues Google is not making fair use of copyrighted material by offering snippets of works. Google has defended its library, saying it is to the full compliant with copyright law. Discussion 1 thick Who is harmed by Googles Print Library program? Obviously, 2 parties were harmed by the birth of Google Book 1. Author Copyright, Revenue Reduction 2. Publisher Public can access online (free of charge), Publisher role will be finally eliminated 42.Parker at one point asked Robert J. LaRocca, a lawyer for the Authors Guild, said the legal issues would not take another decade or more to resolve. He said one possible outcome was that Google would be banned from going ahead with its plans, although he called that outcome very remote and said it was more in all probability that the Authors Guild, if victorious, would ask the judge to order a positive license requiring Google to pay $750 for each new copyrighted book it copied. 41 7 10/7/2013 For each group, try to devise a solution that would eliminate or lessen the harm. Author Copyright compensationPublisher Business agreement, Join Venture, Put them in the business model Fair stipend Structure for each parties may hard to be unflinching 43 44 Discussion2 How they make MONEY ? How they make MONEY ? The Top 10 close to Expensive Keywords are 1. Insurance 2. Loans 3. Mortgage 4. Attorney 5. Credit 6. Lawyer 7. Donate 8. Degree 9. Hosting 10. Claim While the minimum bid per keyword is 5 cents in AdWords, the high cost keywords listed above are nowhere near that. Google can make up to $50 per click from the most high-priced PPC keywords. Keyword Advertising is a highly lucrative business for Google. 45 46.97% comes from onl ine pay-per-click advertising. At WordStream we cant How does Google make money? Surprisingly, get affluent PPC thats why we decided to conduct some research and find out what the most expensive keywords are in Google. Some of our results about the most popular and most expensive PPC keywords were to be assumeed, while some (like cord blood and mesothelioma treatment) surprised us and our readers. Discussion2 How they make MONEY ? 47 Discussion Discussion 1 Summary wherefore is Google Pursuing the Library Project? What is in it for Google? Make a list of benefit to Google Discussion2 48 8 10/7/2013.Discussion 2 Summary Why is Google Pursuing the Library Project? 1. Increase Google Searches 2. More ads = More Profit 3. Market Expansion 4. Horizontal Integration 5. Build barrier to instauration 49 50 Discussion If you were a librarian, would you support Googles Print Library program? Why or why not? Discussion3 Publishers Opinion Google Books is a key to our overall Internet strat egy of reaching new trades with our books in an effective and efficient way. We have seen overall traffic to our site increase, backlist sales rise, and weve acquired to the highest degree 4,000 new direct book customers for free since the program launched.Evan Schnittman VP, Rights & Bus Dev 51 52 Discussion3 A 1999 Blackwells title, Metaphysics An Anthology, has had 2,583 page views and 597 buy this book click-throughs since it became part of the program. Without any other marketing, the title has had its best year in the U. S. since publication The high rate of buy this book clicks is translating into sales for our deep backlist. Edward Crutchley Book Sales theatre director Discussion3 Authors Opinion When The Gulf War Chronicles first appear in Google Books, its sales ranking on the Barnes & Noble index jumped by 85% and stay there Richard S. Lowry.Books featured in the Partner Program show a 15. 3% (customer) conversion rate, which means that web surfers who clicked on a Sim on and Schuster book in Google Books each bought a book or went to the Simon and Schuster web site and, for example, subscribed to a newsletter. Conversion rates for other search engines languish around 1-3%. Kate Tentler Senior feebleness President of Digital Media, Simon & Schuster 53 54 9 10/7/2013 Discussion3 The Library Project Copyright Dimension Discussion3 The Library Project Copyright about The World 55 Mostly between 50 70 years 56 Discussion3 The Library Project Lesson from colligate IndustryArriba Vs Kelly Discussion3 The Library Project Lesson from Related Industry Copyright of Image Copyright of Image Court close Arriba Soft operated a visual search engine on the Internet, which returned images instead of text to user search queries. Arriba compiled images from various websites and despite not getting consent from any of these websites, it formed a database containing reduced thumbnails of these images. Leslie Kelly, a professional photographer from California spe cializing in photographing California gold rush country, discovered that some of his pictures were embedded in the Arriba database.He sued Arriba Soft for copyright infringement. In this case, the U. S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit determined Arribas use of Kellys photographs were Fair Use and thus not a copyright infringement. 1) not be commercial in nature, but a transformative purpose 2) The nature of copyright law is to protect creative works more so than works of fact 3) only provided the thumbnails of the images 4) serve as an advertising medium for Kellys work What do you think ? 57 58 Discussion3 The Library Project Lesson from Related Industry Copyright of Image Discussion3The Library Project Lesson from Related Industry UMG vs MP3. com Court Decision Copyright of Music The court decided (1) & (4) were consistent with Fair Use and (2) & (3) were not. But on balance this was enough for it to grant Arribas motion and deny Kellys claims to copyright infringement, becau se of the weight it attached to (1). In 2000, UMG Recordings, Inc. brought a lawsuit to the U. S. zone Court for the Southern District of New York against MP3. com. UMG Recordings sued MP3. com for copying its recordings and placing them onto MP3. coms computer servers.TheseThe court found that Arriba never took ownership of Kellys work and determined the search engine used Kellys images for a purely transformative purpose. servers allowed people who had previously bought the CD to access the music on this CD online from multiple locations. 59 60 10 10/7/2013 Discussion3 The Library Project Lesson from Related Industry Copyright of Music Discussion3 The Library Project Lesson from Related Industry Sony Vs Universal City Studio Court Decision Copyright of Recording Universal City Studios sued Sony Corporations in 1979 on the claim that Sonys MP3.com elected to defend itself with a Fair Use argument. The district courts, however, control in UMGs favor stating that copyright holders new recording device was a copyright infringement. The Betamax (Sonys home recording device) allowed users to copy complete TV shows for time shift the ability to watch programs at a time different than the allotted broadcast time slot. Sony argued its recording device was fair use and did not constitute any contributory infringement of copyright. had the exclusive rights to control derivative markets by refusing to license a copyrighted work.29 By entirely copying recordings creative works closer to the core of copyright protection The court did not find MP3. coms use of the recordings to be consistent with the tenets of fair use. 61 62 Discussion3 The Library Project Lesson from Related Industry Copyright of Recording Discussion3 The Library Project Impact on Music Industry Court Decision The Supreme Court agreed with Sony on its contention of fair use, and in its decision emphasized the value of creating a new area of fair use to adapt for new technological capabilitiesWhere v aluable technology does not promote contributory infringement by third parties, the courts are more likely to grant fair use. 63 64 Discussion3 The Library Project Format Revolution Discussion3 The Library Project Impact on Music Industry According to an undated RIAA press release, global music piracy causes $12. 5 billion of economic losses every year, 71,060 U. S. jobs lost, and a loss of $422 million in tax revenues, $291 mil, a loss of $2. 7 billion in workers earningslion in personal income tax and $131 million in lost corporate income and production taxes.35 In addition, RIAA argues, the loss in revenues provides a disincentive for record producers and music artists to produce the music. (For a graphical view of piracy on the music industry, please see Appendix IV). The Decline and Fall of Recorded Music Is the Case For a Format Revolution 65 66 11 10/7/2013 Discussion3 The Library Project Impact on Music Industry Discussion3 The Library of Digitization on the Book Industry T he Impact Project Association of Canadian Publishers cerebrate that the best course of action was to But it turned outto be that the not everyone agree with RIAA.But which side is the majority? And which side is correct? build up publishers as to the situation but to leave it to them to determine whether to participate or not. The report emphasized that Google presents the industry with both an opportunity and a huge challenge. The report noted that there is no fee for publishers to join the program, and Google gives publishers a share of revenue from contextual ads, placed next to the book pages, that are actually clicked on. counsel that, publishers are best served if theyown their own digital files, that Google does not give publishers a copy of any file that they digitize and that the Google file is not of superlative quality. 67 68 If you were a librarian, would you support Googles Print Library program? Why or why not? 1. Support as long as its under Copyright Law, or at the point that 1. 1 Authors will be properly inspired 1. 2 Business is on going 2. Google Books will be like world digital public library which definitely better than the physical library in many ways 3. The integration of knowledge will top up the wisdom of mankind 69 Discussion Discussion 3 Summary.Why firms like Amazon, Yahoo, and Microsoft unlike the Library Project? Why would a firm like Sony Support Google? 70 Discussion4 The Library Digital Cold War ofProject World? Discussion4 The Library Project Amazon vs Google Dozens of libraries have understood the danger of the Google Book maneuver and have joined the OCA. Jean-Claude Guedon, Professor of Literature at the University of Montreal 71 72 12 10/7/2013 Discussion4 Discussion4 The Library Project Microsoft, Yahoo vs Google Both are the competitors of Google in some ways.. But clearly that there is a huge opening between them, what will Google.Books impact on the gap? Will Google Books Settlement make the investment in Ama zons Kindle both device and file useless ? With Google Books, every device that can connect to the internet can be e-Reader 73 74 Discussion4 The Library Project Google & Sony 75 Google TV is a Smart TV platform from Google co-developed by Intel, Sony, and Logitech that was launched in October 2010. 2 Google TV integrates the Google Chromebrowser to create an interactive television overlay on top of existing Internet 76 television and WebTV sites to add a 10-foot user interface.Discussion4The Library Project Sony vs Amazon Discussion 4 Summary Why firms like Amazon, Yahoo, and Microsoft opposed the Library Project? The Google Books Settlement will grant Google the exclusive right to sell out of print works that remain under contract Amazon will be impacted dramatically because it is the biggest online bookstore and have just created their reading device Kindle which is pictured as the new era of book reading 77 78 13 10/7/2013 Discussion 4 Summary Why firms like Amazon, Yahoo, and M icrosoft opposed the Library Project? Discussion 4 Summary Why would a firm like Sony Support Google?Yahoo would also opposed the solving because Google search will definitely be more benefit to searchers Microsoft is the one who try creating the online library but not successful Sony is also the one who offer the reader device The Daily Edition so it want to challenges Amazons Kindle sale Sony also has the agreement with Google to access more than 500,000 e-books 79 80 Discussion Do you think the Library Project will result in a de facto monopoly in e-books, or will there be other competitors? Discussion5 The Digitalization Other Library Project Effort Live Search Books Funded by Microsoft and started in 2006, folded in May of 2008.www. archive. org driving force behind the Open Content Alliance, Internet Archive is a non-profit, and is the second-largest books scanning project, has scanned 1. 3 million books www. booksurge. com subsidiary of Amazon. com, effort to digitize hard -to-fi nd books, giving 35% royalties on retail sales of paperback books. 81 82 Discussion5 The Digitalization Other Library Project Effort . Discussion5 The Library Monopoly ? Google, TheProject Jstor. org archive system for academic journals europeana. eu provides access to European digital items including digitized paintings, books and films.I reside about the effects on competition. Googles high settlement payments are barriers to entry by anyone else. Though its plausible no one had the resources or spine to compete with Google regardless, a judicial determination that the use was fair would have enabled more competition in parallel and distinct library offerings. Now, Google cements its receipts in yet another field. www. safaribooksonline. com provides access to books, videos, and tutorials from OReilly, Peachpit, Prentice Hall, Microsoft Press, and others. 83 Wendy Seltzer, Professor at American Universitys Washington College of Law 84 14.10/7/2013 Discussion5 The Libr ary Monopoly ? Google, TheProject Discussion5 The Library Monopoly ? Google, TheProject Has Google backed away from an interesting and socially constructive fair use fight in order to secure market power for itself? Does this deal give Google an unfair head start against any secondcomers to book scanning? Michael Madison, Professor at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law As part of the settlement, Google agreed to pay $34. 5 million to establish the Books Rights Registry, which is supposed to serve as an independent party to dole out Googles royalties to the rightful parties. lxx percent of all revenues earned through the Google Books Project would go to the Books Rights Registry, and then on the holders of the copyrights. 85 86 Discussion5 Google, The Monopoly ? Discussion 5 Summary Google will please what can only be called a monopoly a monopoly of a new kind, not of railroads or steel but of access to information. Google has no serious competitors. Do you think the Lib rary Project will result in a de facto monopoly in e-books, or will there be other competitors? Probable 1. The settlement allows Google to sell copies of works that no other organization in the U.S. can sell 2. The settlement allows Google to do things that no one else can reasonably expect to ever be able to do. 87 88 Robert Darnton, Head of the Harvard library system Discussion 5 Summary Do you think the Library Project will result in a de facto monopoly in e-books, or will there be other competitors? Discussion 5 Summary Do you think the Library Project will result in a de facto monopoly in e-books, or will there be other competitors? Probable 3. Currently, there is no reasonable expectation that a competitor to Google Book will or could ever arise 4.The current settlement allows Google to set prices for books that will ultimately be anti-competitive. 5. As more and more libraries disappear, and physical copies of orphaned works become harder to come by, Googles monopolistic possession of these works will only strengthen. BTW null is impossible in digital world, there are strongly negative criticisms about Google from may parties. Some even share their resource and build the new organization to challenge Google Book. The case like Microsoft Encarta and Wikipedia may be not only the case that giant is defeated by ant 89 90 15.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Foundations of Mythology Short Answers Essay

How is the word fabrication used popularly? For example, what does the statement, Its a myth mean? In contrast, how is the word myth used in the academic context? After considering the things in the exposition in your textbooks and course materials, write a definition in your own words.The word myth is used in stories told people dont know if the stories told be true or not. My individualised belief is that a myths can be both true and not true tales. My reason for this because things in the area that happened more than fifty years past or farseeinger could be turned into false information after the years and years of being restated, no one knows because this area has happened so long ago in time. Myths are stories that were passed on from one generation to the next one its fiction and non -fiction. Myth is used in academic context as being an explanatory narrative, & illustrates how people should act and the existing social order. They are collectively authored and are create d by people traditions and oral traditions are told and retold over time. My definition of myth is something that has reason for it could be true or untrue depending on the topic you just have to use logic to determine the truth of the bring up or statement.Why do myths from different cultures around the world address such similar or universal themes? Think ab expose how myths explain the outlander and the tribulations of mankind.The reasoning why myths from other cultures are similar is because of their story lines, they are different because every couture has their own behalfs and way of doing things accordantly and the ways in which it has been through with(p) for generation after generation most people believe that this way is best. They share a way that is perspective, and has value and interest and couldbe their own stories. In some(prenominal) myths your able to format we connect to each other no matter the holiness choice or aspect on the different types of myths.Myths are great in explaining the unknown and the tribulations of mankind. Myths give meaning into our lives, they explain things that are unexplaning they encourage or give us great ideas about different events and in schools helping students learn the different myth types. By doing this it enables us to learn different myths that are out there and the background of them. Myths give you laughter or tears and a clearer understanding of different things going on in our current life and events that happened before our time.What is the relationship between belief, knowledge, mythology, and religion? Where do mythology and religion intersect? Where do they diverge? Think about the function of myth and religion in helping human beings cope with change, suffering, loss, and death. There are many huge differences between religion and myth they can be overlapping mythology is one component or aspect of religion knowledge is very ceaseless and ever changing axiom. Mythology and religion intersect at they start as explanation accepted by people are two different things, mythology isnt a religion but a myth of stories and the studies it can explain the unexplainable religions are surely traditional stories.They diverge easily but are both the same type of things with just different labels in difference between the two is that mythology is about anything a belief which has existed with not any proof. piety is that of what you worship or reveres the persons or objects. In cases religion and myth always help us cope with change, suffering, with loss and deaths no matter what we will solely deal with these things in our own personal ways, no one will ever grieve with lose the same as another person.How would you defend mythologys relevance in contemporary culture? Think about familial and cultural traditions. Also, consider how mythology is used in the arts and in advertising to signify human experience.I would defend mythologys relevance in contempary culture as being very re levant and great need in troupe it gives us insight on all cultures from around the entire world. I would defend the mythology perspective my familyhas a tradition of having yearly trail rides in the townsfolk I am from and getting together at least once a year either thanksgiving or Christmas time this helps our family find out how we all are doing in our lives because we all become very busy Mythology is used in the arts and advertising to typify the human experiences.Referenceswww. Askville.amazon.comwww.eridu.co.uk/Author/myth_religion/myth_religion. hypertext mark-up languagemythsdreamssymbols.com/Importance of myth. HtmlEBOOK COLLECTION Leonard, S., & McClure, M. (2004). Myth & knowing An introduction to world mythology. New York, NY McGraw-Hill.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Haemoglobinopathy

Review Article Indian J Med Res 134, October 2011, pp 552-560 encroaching(a) & non- invasive approaches for antepartum diagnosing of haemoglobinopathies Experiences from India R. B. Colah, A. C. Gorakshakar & A. H. Nadkarni subject area Institute of Immunohaematology (ICMR), Mumbai, India Received October 29, 2010 The thalassaemias and sickle cell disease argon the commonest monogenic disorders in India. There are an estimated 7500 12,000 babies with ? -thalassaemia major natural every year in the country. While the overall prevalence of carriers in divers(prenominal) States varies from 1. to 4 per centime, recent work has shown considerable variations in frequencies even inside States. Thus, micromapping would help to determine the true burden of the disease. Although screening in antenatal clinics is being through with(p) at many centres, only 15-20 per cent of pregnant women render in antenatal clinics in public hospitals in the first trimester of pregnancy. There are on ly a handful of centres in major cities in this immense country where antepartum diagnosing is done. There is considerable molecular heterogeneity with 64 variances identified, of which 6 to 7 common fluctuations account for 80-90 per cent of mutant alleles. offshoot trimester foetal diagnosis is done by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and deoxyribonucleic acid analysis using reverse dot blot hybridization, amplification refractory chromosomal mutation system (ARMS) and desoxyribonucleic acid sequencing. Second trimester diagnosis is done by cordocentesis and foetal blood analysis on HPLC at a few centres. Our experience on prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies in 2221 pregnancies has shown that 90 per cent of couples were referred for prenatal diagnosis of ? -thalassaemia after having one or more affected children while about 35 per cent of couples were referred for prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell disorders prospectively.There is a clear need for more data from India on non-invasive approaches for prenatal diagnosis. Key words Haemoglobinopathies India invasive and non-invasive approaches prenatal diagnosis Introduction The inherited disorders of haemoglobin are the almost common monogenic disorders globally. Around 7 per cent of the population worldwide are carriers with more than 3,00,000 severely affected babies born every year1. Prenatal diagnosis is an integral component of a community control programme for haemoglobinopathies. Estimating the disease burden, generating consciousness in the population, screening 552 o identify carriers and couples at happen and heritable counselling are prerequisites for a successful prevention programme. The remarkable success of such programmes in the 1970s in Cyprus, Italy, Greece and the UK led to the development of control programmes in many other countries2-6. The extent of the problem in India ? -thalassaemia has been reported in most of the communities that invite been screened so far in India . While the overall prevalence varies from 1. 5 to 4 per COLAH et al PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES IN INDIA 553 ent in different States, communities like Sindhis, Punjabis, Lohanas, Kutchi Bhanushalis, Jains and Bohris have a higher prevalence (4-17%)7-12. Different reportshaveestimatedthat7500-12,000? -thalassaemia major babies would be born in India each year12 -14. It has also been shown recently by micromapping at the district level in two States, Maharashtra and Gujarat in westernIndiathattheprevalenceof? -thalassaemiatrait in different districts within these States is variable (0 9. 5%). Based on these estimates there would be more or less 1000birthsof? thalassaemiamajorbabieseachyear in these two States alone15. Thus, such data should be obtained from different States to know the true burden of the disease and for planning and executing control programmes. Haemoglobin S (Hb S) is prevalent in central India and among the tribal belts in western, eastern and southe rn India, the carrier rates varying from 1-40 per cent16-18. It has been estimated that over 5000 babies with sickle cell disease would be born each year19. Haemoglobin E is widespread in the labor union eastern States in Assam, Mizoram, Manipur, ArunachalPradesh and Tripura, the prevalence of Hb E trait being highest (64%) among the Bodo-Kacharis in Assam and going up to 30-40 per cent in some other populations in this region20-22. In eastern India the prevalence of Hb E trait varies from 3-10 per cent in West Bengal8,23. Both Hb E andHbSwhenco-inheritedwith? -thalassaemiaresult in a disorder of variable clinical severity24-26. These inherited haemoglobin disorders cause considerable pain and poor to the patients and their families and are a major drain on health resources in the country. The need for accurate identification of carries and couples at peril Classical ? thalassaemia carriers have typically reduced red cell indices mean corpuscular volume (MCV)T) ? + 3. -87 (CT) ? + 4. -80 (CT) ? + 5. -29 (AG) ? + 6. -28 (AG) ? + 7. -25 (AG) ? + B. Cap site 1. +1 (AC) ? + C. Initiation codon 1. ATG ACG ? 0 D. RNA processing mutations i) Splice continuative site 1. Codon 30 (GC) ? 0 2. Codon 30 (GA) ? 0 3. IVS 1-1 (GT) ? 0 4. IVS 1-1 (GA) ? 0 5. IVS 1-129 (AC) ? 0 6. IVS 1-130 (GC) ? 0 7. IVS 1-130 (GA) ? 0 8. IVS II-1 (GA) ? 0 (ii) Consensus site 1. IVS 1-5 (GC) ? + 2. IVS 1-128 (TAG GAG) ? + 3. IVS II-837 (TG) ? (iii) IVS changes 1.IVS I-110 (GA) ? + 2. IVS II-591 (TC) ? + 3. IVS II-613 (CT) ? + 4. IVS II-654 (CT) ? + 5. IVS II-745 (CG) ? + iv) Coding region changes 1. Codon 26 (GA) Hb E ? + E. RNA translational mutations i) Nonsense 1. Codons 4,5,6 (ACT CCT GAG ACA TCT ? 0 TAG) 2. Codon 5 (-CT), Codon 13 (CT), Codon 26 ? (GC), Codons 27/28 (+C) in cis 3. Codon 6 (GAG TAG) and on the aforementioned(prenominal) ? 0 chromosome Codon 4 (ACT ACA) , Codon 5 (CCTTCT) 4. Codon 8 (AG) ? 5. Codon 13 (CT), Codon 26 (GA), Codons ? 27/28 (-C) in cis 6. Codon 15 (TG G TAG) ? 0 7. Codons 62-64 (7 bp del) ? 0 8. Codons 81-87 (22 bp del) ? 9. Codon 121 (GT) ? 0 Contd. themselves, today their relatives and all-embracing families are coming forward to get screened38. There is only one centre in Lucknow in north India which offers a formal course for genetic counsellors and there is a need for more such courses throughout the country. Counsellors should be aware that couples at risk of havingachildwith? -thalassaemiamajor,sicklecell disease, Hb S ? -thalassaemia, Hb E ? -thalassaemia, ? -thalassaemia, Hb Lepore ? -thalassaemia and Hb SD disease should be given the option of prenatal diagnosis to avoid the birth of a child with a severe disorder.However, couples at risk of having a child with Hb D disease, Hb D ? -thalassaemia and Hb E disease do not require prenatal diagnosis as these disorders are mild. InSardinia,identificationofthemaximumnumber of carriers followed by effective genetic counselling helpedtoreducethebirthrateof? -thalassaemiamaj or babies from 1250 to 1400039. Prenatal diagnosis The first initiatives in India Facilities for prenatal diagnosis became available in India in the mid 1980s40. Until then, although prenatal diagnosis was offered by a few centres, foetal samples were sent to the UK and other countries for analysis.Foetal blood sampling by fetoscopy done between 18 and 22 wk gestation and diagnosis by globin chain synthesis were done for the next 4 to 5 geezerhood at 2 centres in Mumbai40,41. Chorionic villus sampling and DNA analysis in the first trimester In the 1990s first trimester foetal diagnosis by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and DNA analysis was established at 4-5 centres in the north in Delhi42, in the west in Mumbai41,43,44 and in the south in Vellore45. These services then expanded to other cities like Lucknow and Chandigarh in the north46,47, and Kolkata in the east48.However, these services are still limited to major cities where couples are referred to or CVS samples are sent fro m surrounding areas. Molecular analysis ? -thalassaemia is extremely heterogeneous with more than 200 mutations described worldwide49. In India, about 64 mutations have been characterized by studies done at different centres30,31,49-51 (Table I). Six to seven mutations IVS 1-5 (G? C), 619 bp deletion, IVS 1-1 (G? T), Codon 8/9 (+G), Codons 41/42 (-CTTT), COLAH et al PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES IN INDIA (ii) Frameshift 1. Codon 5 (-CT) 2. Codons 7/8 (+G) 3. Codon 8 (-AA) 4. Codons 8/9(+G) 5.Codon 13 (CT) 6. Codon 15 (-T) 7. Codon 16 (-C) 8. Codon 16 (CT) 9. Codon 17 (AT) 10. Codons 22-24 (7 bp del) 11. Codon 26 (GT) 12. Codon 35 (AG) 13. Codons 36/37 (-T) 14. Codons 36-39 (8 bp del) 15. Codon 39 (CT) 16. Codon 44 (-C) 17. Codons 47/48 (+ATCT) 18. Codon 55 (+A) 19. Codon 55 (-A) 20. Codons 57/58 (+A) 21. Codon 88 (+T) 22. Codons 106/107 (+G) 23. Codon 110 (TC) 24. Codon 111 (-G) 25. Codon 135 (CT) F. RNA cleavage and polyadenylation mutation 1. AATAAAAACAAA G. Deletional mutations 1. 619 bp deletion 3end 2. 10. 3 kb deletion 3. Codons 126-131 (17 bp deletion) Source Refs 30, 31, 49-51 55 ?0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? + ? 0 ? + ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 Fig. 1. Regionaldistri butionof? -thalassaemiamutationinIndia. molecular techniques like covalent reverse dot blot hybridization (CRDB), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and DNA sequencing43,44,52. Foetal blood analysis in the arcminute trimester Most of the prenatal diagnosis programmes in the Mediterranean countries started with second trimester foetal blood analysis but they were able to switch over tofirsttrimesterdiagnosisinashortspan5,39.In India, second trimester diagnosis is still done as manycouplesatriskareidentifiedlateduringpregnancy. Foetal blood sampling is done by cordocentesis at 18 to20wkgestationandafterconfirmingthatthereisno motherly contamination in the foetal sample by foetal cell staining using the Kleihauer-Betke method, it is analysed by HPLC on the Variant haemoglobin Testing System (Bio Rad Laboratories, Hercules, USA). The HbA levels in foetuses affected with ? -thalassaemia major have ranged from 0 to 0. 5 per cent and these were distinguishable from heterozygous babies where the Hb A levels were 1. per cent in different studies. However, there was some overlap in Hb A levels between heterozygotes and normals53-55. Sickle cell disease and Hb E thalassaemia have also been diagnosed in this way. On the other hand, experience in Thailand showed that while ? 0 thalassaemia homozygotes and HbE-? 0 thalassaemia compound heterozygotes could be diagnosed by HPLC analysis of foetal blood, ? ++ thalassaemia homozygotes may be misdiagnosed as heterozygotes56. Amniotic fluid cells have not been used extensively in India for prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies. Codon 15 (G? A), Codon 30 (G?C) are common accounting for 85-95 per cent of mutant alleles. However, regional differences in their frequencies have been noted30,31,50,51 (Fig. 1). The prevalence of IVS 1 -5 (G? C), the most common mutation in India varies from 15-88 per cent in different States. Codon 15 (G? A) is the second most frequent mutation in Maharashtra and Karnataka and Codon 5 (-CT) is the third most common mutation in Gujarat. The -88 (C? T) and the Cap site +1 (A? C) mutations are more common in the northern region30,31,50. The 619 bp deletion is the most common mutation among the immigrant population from Pakistan.This cognition on the distribution of mutations in different regions and in people of different ethnic backgrounds has facilitated prenatal diagnosis using 556 INDIAN J MED RES, OCTOBER 2011 Experience at National Institute Immunohaematology (NIIH), Mumbai of Bothfirstandsecondtrimesterprenataldiagnosis for the ? -thalassaemias and sickle cell disorders are done at National Institute of Immunohaematology, Mumbai, and over the last 25 years 2,221 pregnancies at risk have been investigated (Table II). While majority of the couples were at risk of having children with ? thalassaemia major, a significant number of couples at risk of having children with sickle cell disorders have been referred for prenatal diagnosis in the last 4 to 5 years. Our experience in western India has shown that there are still very few couples (G or codon 35 ? (A? G) at alpha -beta chain interfaces. Ann Hematol 2009 88 1269-71. 52. Old JM, Varawalla NY, Weatherall DJ. The rapid detection and prenatal diagnosis of ? -thalassemia in theAsian Indian and Cyproit populations in the UK. Lancet 1990 336 834-7. 53. Rao VB, Natrajan PG, Lulla CP, Bandodkar SB. Rapid midtrimester prenatal iagnosis of beta-thalassaemia and other haemoglobinopathies using a non- radioactive anion exchange HPLC technique an Indian experience. Prenat Diagn 1997 17 725-31. 54. Wadia MR, Phanasgaokar SP, Nadkarni AH, Surve RR, Gorakshakar AC, Colah RB, et al. Usefulness of automated chromatography for rapid foetal blood analysis for second trimester prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia. Prenat Diagn 2002 22 153-7. 559 55. Rao S, Saxena R, Deka D, Kabra M. Use of HbA estimation by CE-HPLC for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia experience from a tertiary care centre in north India a brief report.Hematology 2009 14 122-4. 56. Winichagoon P, Sriphanich R, Sae-Mgo WB, Chowthaworm J, Tantisirin P, Kanokpongsakdi S, et al. Application of automated HPLC in prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia. Lab Hematol 2002 8 29-35. 57. Holzgreve W. Will ultrasonography screening and ultrasound guided procedures be replaced by non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of fetal chromosome anomalies? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997 9 217-9. 58. Steele CD, Wapner RJ, Smith JB, Haynes MK, Jackson LG. Prenatal diagnosis using fetal cells isolated from motherlike peripheral blood. Clin. Obstet Gynecol 1996 39 801-13. 59.Mesker WE, Ouwerkerk-vn Velzen MC, Oosterwijk JC , Bernini LF, Golbus MS, Kanhai HH, et al. Two colour immunocytochemical staining of gamma and epsilon type hemoglobin in fetal red cells. Prenat Diagn 1998 18 1131-7. 60. Takabayashi H, Kuwabara S, Ukita T, Ikawa K, Yamafuji K, Igarashi T. Development of non-invasive fetal DNA diagnosis from maternal blood. Prenat Diagn 1995 15 74-7. 61. Cheung MC, Goldberg JD, Kan YW. Prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell anemia and thalassemia by analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood. Nat genet 1996 14 264-8. 62. Di Naro E, Ghezzi F, Vitucci A, Tannoia N, Campanale D, D Addario V, et al.Prenataldiagnosisof? -thalassemiausing fetal erythroblasts enriched from maternal blood by a novel gradient. Mol Hum Reprod 2000 6 571-4. 63. Kolialexi A, Vrettou C, Traeger-Synodinos J, Burgemeister R, Papantoniou N, Kanavakis E, et al. Non invasive prenatal diagnosisof? -thalassemiausingindividualfetalerythroblasts isolated from maternal blood after enrichment. Prenat Diagn 2007 27 1228-32. 64. DSouza E, Sa want PM, Nadkarni AH, Gorakshakar A, Mohanty D, Ghosh K, et al. Evaluation of the use of monoclonal antibodies and nested PCR for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies in India.Am J Clin Pathol 2008 130 202-9. 65. Lo YM, Corbetta N, Chamberlain PF, Rai V, Sargent IL, Redman CW, et al. Presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum. Lancet 1997 350 485-7. 66. Lo YM, Tein MS, Lau TK, Haines CJ, Leung TN, Poon PM, et al. Quantitaive analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum implications for non invasive prenatal diagnosis. Am J Hum Genet 1998 62 768-75. 67. Lun FMF, Chiu RWK, Allen Chan KC, Lau TK, Leung TY, Dennis Lo YM. Microfluidics digital PCR reveals a higher than expected fraction of fetal DNA in maternal plasma.Clin Chem 2008 54 1664-72. 68. Li Y, Zimmermann B, Rusterholz C, Kang A, Holzgrave W, Hahn S. Size separation of circulating DNA in maternal plasma permits ready detection of fetal DNA polymorphisms. Clin Chem 2004 50 1002-11. 69. Chiu RW , Lau TK, Leung TK, Chow KC, Chui DH, Lo YM. Prenatal exception of beta thalassemia major by examination of maternal plasma. Lancet 2002 360 998-1000. 560 INDIAN J MED RES, OCTOBER 2011 beta thalassemia point mutation by MALDI TOF stilt spectrometry. Fetal Diagn Ther 2009 25 246-9. Papasavva T, Kalikas I, Kyrri A, Kleanthous M.Arrayed primer extension for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassemia based on detection of single infrastructure polymorphism. Ann N Y Acad Sci USA 2008 1137 302-8. Li Y, Di Naro E, Vitucci A, Zimmermann B, Holzgreve W, Hahn S. Detection of paternally inherited fetal point mutations for beta thalassemia using size fractionated cell bare(a) DNA in maternal plasma. J Am Med Assoc 2005 293 843-9. Chan K, Yam I, Leung KY, Tang M, Chan TK, Chan V. Detection of paternal alleles in maternal plasma for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis in beta thalassemia a feasibility study in southern China.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Repord Biol 2010 150 28-33. Lo YM D. Non invasive prenatal diagnosis in 2020. Prenat Diagn 2010 30 702-3. 70. Papasavva T, Kalakoutis G, Kalikas I, Neokli E, Papacharalambous S, Kyrri A, et al. Non-invasive prenatal diagnostic assay for the detection of beta thalassemia. Ann NY Acad Sci USA 2006 1075 148-53. 71. Tungwiwat W, Fucharoen G, Fucharoen S, Ratanasiri T, Sanchaisuriya K, Sae- Ung N. Application of maternal plasma DNA analysis for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of Hb E beta thalassemia. Transl Res 2007 150 319-25. 72. Lazaros L, Hatzi E, Bouba I, Makrydimas G, Dalkalitsis N, Stefos T, et al.Noninvasivefirsttrimesterdetectionofpaternal beta globin gene mutations and polymorphisms as predictors of thalassemia risk at chorionic villus sampling. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Repord Biol 2008 140 17-20. 73. Li Y, Di Naro E, Vitucci A, Grill S, Ahong XY, Holzgreve W, et al. Size fractionation of cell free DNA in maternal plasma improves the detection of a paternally inherited 74. 75. 76. 77. Reprint requests Dr Roshan Colah, Scientist F, National Institute of Immunohaematology (ICMR), 13th Floor, NMS Bldg, KEM Hospital Campus, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, India e-mail emailprotected com

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Master and the Margaritas – an Analysis of “Bezdomny”

The Master and the Margarita Locomotor and speech excitation, delirious interpretations, complex case, it seems. Schizophrenia plus alcoholism, disturbed imaging and hallucinations. This was doctor Stravinskys diagnosis of Ivan Nikolayevich Ponyrov after his super natural encounters with Professor Woland. Ponyrov, likewise known as Homeless is a character of character of long interest especially on the topic of magical realism and the lunacy macrocosmalized belief systems in Soviet Russia as well as the juvenile western society, that make Ponyrov one of Bulgakovs most interesting characters.This paper is interested in exploring the role of Ponyrov in Michael Bulgakovs The Master and Margaritas with the focus on what kind of social representation Ponyrov was intended to represent in the novel. This paper is constructed in attempt to relate the historical relevance of phantasmagoria characters from The Master and Margeritas to its parallel narratives in 1930s Russia, showing that the character of Ponyrov is a reflection victimization of societal and institutional absurdity such(prenominal) as Stalins Great Purge during the other(a) years of Soviet Russia.The stage of The Master and Margaritas as wellk place in 1930s Moscow, though the story is restricted to neither the realm of reality nor this specific sentence period as the story blends and weaves between the story of Jesus in ancient Roman Empire and industrial Russia. The novels beginning holds finicky importance in pinch Ponyrov (or homeless) as introduce the reader to two worlds, both full of security review and political prosecution.Before the Devils presentation as a foreign Professor name Woland, this world seemed to follow the laws of physics, thus at the beginning of the novel it seemed to be a realist story, complying with modern communistic and realist doctrines on gothic literature. The story eventually morphs two fantastic realms as Professor Woland slyly brought in several fantastic/th eological elements to atheist-anti religious believers such as our character of focus, Ivan Nikolayevich Ponyrov. This no doubt created disbelief and tension between the non-believers (Berlioz and Bezdomny).It is at this point when some of the Omni-type qualities in Bezdomny are first reveled. Bezdomny, in his reaction to seeing what happened to Berlioz and his dialog with the Devil showed us he is the character type that represents a believer in the status quo, which at the time was the atheist arithmetic mean on the existence of Jesus Christ a law abiding citizen and a defender of Soviet beliefs. Later when he went on his unfortunate jeopardize to confirm what he experienced to the authorities, Bezdomny was sent to a mental institutional.It is this betrayal of a society toward an individual when the individual has done nothing wrong. Bulgakov was in truth cognizant of the fear of political prosecution in Soviet Russia during the time he wrote The Master and Margaritas as he hi mself fear the implications his novel would have for him. Therefore it is very interesting to focus on the subtle hints of political advocacy rebelling against the state. Back in the story the chaos induced by Satan disguised as Professor Rowland Satan, ominously flipped Ponyrovs world upside down, creating horrible internally confusions in Ponyrov.Having just being confronted that his core belief in religion bogus and later having had to witness the horrific death of someone he knew, his reaction to all these changes are arguably the most relatable and seemingly sensible from the perspective of a rational reader. Yet, his misfortune had only began, Ponyrov was condemned insane and segregated from normal society by the society he thought to be fair and rational. As a young poet, who before the strange events at Patriarch Pond was still a promising poet who is living a good life or a life without prosecution.It is the sudden change in the story we see not only the introduction of ma gic realism in the novel and it also shows the drastic change of reality for m all political activists, intelligentsias, and academics in Russia since the October Revolution. That particular demography is presented in Bezdomny. Bulgakovs excellence in this piece is his ability to avoid political prosecution for his own lop and through satire and the disguise of a alter reality to construct a realistic representation of soviet political prosecution during Stalins censorship and political purge.Bulgakov was not able to let go The Master and Margaritas as he would have liked because he too was a victim of Soviet censorship. This piece was first rejected by the editorial board as it was too radical at the time and the publish version was only submitted after editing many potentially offensive parts to the Soviet Government. The theme of censorship is quite noticeable and by understanding Bulgakovs history and his own personal relationship dealing with censorship, its evident the mas ter in the story is really Bulgakov himself.The master and Bezdomny were both considered insane by their society, and the standard qualification for admission in a mental institution is a reflection on the standard, which the editorial board qualify as work accepted or work rejected. Bulgakov tried to show that the two institutions, editorial board and mental institution is really both a method of censorship and political purge. In the logical of a paranoid dictator, Stalin was be very sensitive about individuals thinking outside the box , especially a yeasty and provocative writer like Bulgakov.The most provocative element in creating Bezdomny as a character is probably his interactions with the master in the mental institution they were both forced to attend. At this point in the novel, the readers should already have a firm understanding that neither Bezdomny nor the Master actually have any mental illness. The conversations between Bezdomny and the Master over the Master novel seemed coherent and logical. As to the magical elements that made them seem crazy, Bezdomny especially was not the archetype but merely the observer of absurdities that were happening around him which made him seem crazy.It is this powerful mental experiment that Bulagkov embark the readers on so we are conditioned to vacillate with Bezdomny in feeling helpless and wronged. As a reader, it was difficult not to feel trapped and powerless while reading this section, and this is in part a product of the form of tale Bulgakov uses in the novel. The story, apart from dialogs between characters is told in through mostly an omniscient narrator, whom the readers have no knowledge of. The combination of the narration techniques Bulgakov used was able to achieve a cinematic reading experience as one follow through the four short days the story cover.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Volleyball vs Softball

Petter Tomas ENG 101 September 12th, 2011 volleyball blue game Vs. Softball shell run Spike These be some rattling different words that mean very different things between softball game game game volleyball. Not only argon they different but they mass be alike(predicate) in smaller ways also. They twain(prenominal) deal with balls, there both amusements, they are both contend in the same season. Their different in sizes, both uses different equipment, and are both turn of events very differently. When it comes to the equipment utilize there are no interchangeableities. There are many divergences in the equipment used in volleyball then there is in softball.You put ont use bats in volleyball, and you befoolt use nets in softball. The balls used in volley ball are oftentimes larger compared to a softball. In softball you use a bat to hit the ball out into the field. In volleyball you use your hands to hit the ball over the net to the other side. The teams dont comp are in sizes. In volleyball there are six people on both sides of the net. As in softball there female genital organ be nine to ten players out on the field. If you play slow pitch there is usually ten, but if its fast pitch theirs usually nine.Of shape since they are completely deuce different larks that would mean that they prolong completely different rules on how to play. volleyball and softball are usually both played around the same time of yr, spring time. They git both be played outdoors. Volleyball can be played out doors in the linchpin or inside a gym. It doesnt really matter as long as you drive a net. When it comes to softball you can only play that outside on a softball field. When it comes to both capers, they are both very different. I rather would prefer to play softball rather than volleyball.To me softball is more of a competitive sport, eer moving around the field. Theres more areas to play. such(prenominal) as pitcher, catcher, hitter. But dont outwi t me wrong I like to play volleyball for fun also. Softball and volleyball are very different in many ways. But similar in some ways also. They are both great sports to play. So if you like to spike it, or hit a home run, they are both fun sports to play. a-raes end end Hdad beging People are always trying to figure out what sport to play. Some of the just about popular sports to participate in and to watch, just happen to be the ii sports that I have the most expertise in.I played in both volleyball and softball thought out my young life. I have played in organized leagues both in high school and for the YMCA as well. I am using these cardinal examples to show you two residues and two similarities that both sports have in common. In providing you this information I rely it whitethorn become beneficial in helping a person that is having trouble deciding which sport is best for them. If their final two choices were volleyball and softball that is. First we will talk about the d ifferences.The basic difference that I will discuss will be about a flake of equipment that is used in both sports and has to be used to participate and play in both sports. The second difference that I want to convey is what effect fiscal contact has on your decision to picks the correct one. The two similarities that I am going to discuss are that they both can be played with superficial expense to a person or persons and that both of these sports you have flexibility in the times of the year that you can play and participate in both sports and is a factor in the popularity of both sports.The piece of equipment that may be used as a deciding factor in choosing the correct sport for a person and probably the most important piece is the ball. Its true they both are played with a ball. The differences that I want to bring up are the size of the balls and the way they are made. The softball is harder and made of a more durable core made of a solid polyurethane and. The outer(preno minal) leather is stitched and held together with a nylon thread. It has a circumference of ten inches. Where the volleyball is a survey softer leather and has a circumference of twenty-five inches.The ball that is used in a volleyball game is hit with your fist and the ball used in a softball game is hit with a bat. The second difference that I think could be a factor in your decision is how much body contact that is involved in both sports. Yes, they both are considered a non contact sport with minimal contact, but in both sports you can experience an injury if you are not run and in shape. and the many different environments that both can be played in. For example, football players often acquire the opposite players to stop them approaching forward. But it is rarely seen in a baseball game.Another major difference is the rule. For instance, it changes defense side and offense side when every three players are out in a baseball game. But its totally different from football. You are changed to offense side when you intercept the ball. The pull through difference is that football players have to carry the ball to touch down but baseball players dont need to do that. In conclusion, though there are some similarities and differences This could be a deciding factor when choosing the correct sport. Some people may think softball as a more of a tough man sport.Or a person that plays volleyball,he/she is has more skills that someone that plays softball. Contrary to what spectators may think, these two sports take effort by all the players. This is one thing that football and basketball have in common. Both of these sports are team sports, because it takes every person on the team to achieve and pursue is either in school participating off scholarship or playing in a league out side school. start the understanding that it takes hard work, team work and working with others to and achieve personal goals later on in life. They are both great sports to. wo beliefs that a person can needs to prosper and sussed. I have picked both are very popular from childhood threw adulthood. The concept of working together that working with people is needed in the grand schemes of things to, achieve goals, and to succeed in life. There are so many sports in the world. There are some similarities and differences between these two sports. I would like to discuss the similarities first. needed teamwork to win a game. Teammates should cooperate with each other and attach to their strategy made by coaches to go through the game and win eventually.There are no two better sports than softball and volleyball to use as the seed to being teaching these idea. Both are a fun activity and both can be played with a minimal of funding. Volleyball and softball are usually both played around the same time of year, spring time. They can both be played outdoors. Volleyball can be played out doors in the horse sense or inside a gym. Softball is usually played outside on a s oftball field. I would prefer to play softball rather than volleyball. To me softball is more of a competitive sport.Your always moving around. Theres more areas to play. Such as pitcher, catcher, hitter. But dont get me wrong I like to play volleyball for fun also. between these two sports, you can play what you want. In high school, the most enjoyable part of ones Friday nights will somehow complicate football games and basketball games. Football and basketball are almost always recognized as the most important sports to a school. one was to compare and contrast football to basketball, he/she would find many similarities, as well as differences.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

B.Sc Chemistry, Zoology, Botany, English, Pak.Study, Islamiate.

INSTRUCTIONS 1. all told entries in the Admission machinate must be made in BLOCK LETTERS by the candidate in his/her own handwriting. 2. Incomplete application form will not be accepted. 3. all candidate who passed intermediate examination from Lahore, Sargodha, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala and Federal get on can apply for registration without N. O. C (No protestation Certificate). 4. The candidate who want him self to be Registered with the University of the Punjab and has passed Intermediate Examination, B. A/B. Sc. etc. rom other Board/ University, which does not fall under the territorial Jurisdiction of University of the Punjab, will attach original N. O. C. within stipulated clock from the concerned Board/ University. 5. The Candidate will obtain Registration number before appearing in any examination of University of the Punjab otherwise his/her admission form will not be entertained. 6. In national of M. A. Student it is necessary to mention the Subject. 7. Punj ab University have a right to cancel the Registration Number if educational documents found bogus. 8. The following documents must be attached with the Registration Form. a. Attested photocopy of Matriculation force observance. . Attested photocopy c. of Intermediate result card. d. Attested photocopy of B. A/B. Sc result card (if applicable) e. Attested photocopy of N. I. C. f. Attested photocopy of fathers N. I. C. g. Original Migration Certificate. DECLARATION I, SOLEMNLY deem THAT The entries made in this form are correct. In case of any misstatement I may be held responsible. (Signature of the Application) Name of the Applicant SPACE FOR PASTING ORIGINAL BANK CHALLAN RECEIPT LIST OF AUTHORIZED HABIB BANK LTD. BRANCHES FOR appealingness OF UNIVERSITY FEES. LOCAL BRANCHES Gujrat, Circular pathway outgrowth Islamabad, Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education part Lahore, University of the Punjab, innovative & Old Campus Jaranwala, Grain Maket Branch Lahore, Rew az Garden Branch Jauharabad, Main Branch Lahore, Bilal Park Branch Jhang, Saddar Shaheed passage Branch Lahore, Cricket House Branch Jhelum, Machine Mohalla Branch Lahore, D. P.S Model Town Branch Kamaliya, railway line path Branch Lahore, Dharampura Branch Kasur, railway line Road Branch Lahore, Keerkallan Branch Mandi Baha ud Din, Main Branch Mianwali, Zaka fondness Branch MOFUSSIL BRANCHES Okara, Grain Market Branch Pind Dadan Khan, Market Branch Attock, City Branch Rabwah, Main Branch Bhakkar, Main Branch Rawalpindi, Liaquat Bagh Branch Bhalwal, Muslim Bazar Branch Rawalpindi, Raja Bazar Branch Chakwal, Railway Road Branch Rawalpindi, Faiz abad Branch Chiniot, Main Bazar Branch Sialkot, City Branch Faisalabad, Circular Road Branch Samundri, Ghalla Mandi Branch Faisalabad, Samanabad Road Branch Sargodha, Fatima Jinnah Road Branch Faisalabad, Narwala Road Branch Sheikhupura, Railway Road Branch Gujranwala, Bank Square Branch Skardu, Main Branch Gilgit, Main Branch Toba Tek Singh, Main Branch Gojra, Railway Road Branch Wazirabad, Main Bazar Branch FOR OFFICE USE Actual amount of money Due Amount Received Receipt Number ensure Amount Still Due persona made by the office to the defaulter Letter Number Date Reminder Number Date Important instruction 1. Money order, Postal Orders, Bank Drafts and Cheques will not be accepted. Please extend recent sky blue background Photograph Size 1. 5 x 1. 5 pic Form Price Rs. 15/-

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Business Law Cases Essay

The subject field presented here falls low the doctrine of Contract Act, 1872 and especially under the supplyings regarding wear and remedies for breach of a centralise. When the rights and responsibilities arising out of a squeeze are extinguished, the contract is said to be dissolved or terminated. A contract may be dissolved in any of the following ways 1. By Agreement A contract female genitals be terminated by an agreement between the same parties who entered into the contract with mutual agreement. 2.By Performance As the parties into the contract complete performance of their shares of promises a contract in terminated. 3. By defeat A contract can be terminated by the impossibility in the fulfillment of the determination of the parties in entering into a contract. 4. By Breach When a contract is non honored by peerless or more than of the parties to the contract by non-performance or interference with the other ships companys performance. 5. By Operation on Law D ischarge of a contract by operation of legality may occur by merger, by insolvency or by alteration of the written document.In the trip in concern, Nike (BD) Ltd. enters into a contract with Sunshine Fabrics for supply of 50,000 pcs of island of Jersey as per sample and design. One of the provision/ stipulation of the said contract was that-the Sunshine Fabrics would not sell to his other customers for a period of 2 old age any T-shirt of the same design and description. Eventually the said design T-shirt (of Nike) became very popular in Bangladesh and, many retail shops show keen interest to buy them at higher price and as such, Sunshine Fabrics started selling them to different shops ignoring their contract with Nike (BD) Ltd.This is a clear eccentric of breach of contract. A breach of contract is failure to perform as stated in the contract. When a contract is broken the party who suffers on account of it has one or other of the following remedies 1. ravish Damages are mone ytary compensation allowed to the injured party for the sacking or injury suffered by him as a result of the brach of contract. 2. Specific Performance Specific performance means the actual carrying out of the contract as agreed. 3. Injunction Injunction is an order of a court restraining a person from doing a incident act.It is a mode of securing the specific performance of the negetive terms of a contrct. 4. Cancellation of the instrument When there is a breach of contract by one party, the other party may rescind the contract and need not perform his part of obligations under the contract. 5. Rectification of the instrument When through fraud or mutual drift of the parties a contract or other instrument in writing does not truly speak their intention either party or his representative in interest may institute a suit to have the instrument rectified. In the case personated Nike (BD) Ltd. s the party who is the sufferer of the breach of contract. along with damage, Nike (BD) Ltd. can also file a suit for injunction and cancellation of the instrument. The fundamental principle underlying redress is not punishment but compensation.By prizeing restitution the court aims to put the injured party into the position in which he would have been, had there been performance and not breach, and not to punish the defaulter party. As a general rule, compensation must be commensurate with the injury or loss sustained, arising naturally from the breach. Where the party has suffered no damage on account of the breach, the court may distillery award him nominal damages in recognition of his right. In this case, Nike (BD) Ltd. has suffered an actual loss which arose in the usual bod of things from the breach. Thus Nike can claim substantial damage to compensate its suffering. Injunction is a discretionary mend of the Court. An injunction may be temporary or perpetual. Where a party is in breach of disallow term of a contract, the court may, by issuing an injunctio n, restrain him from doing from what it is promised not to do.Thus injunction is a preventive relief. Since in this case, Sunshine Fabrics is doing an act (selling T-shirts of the particular design) which it promised not to do Nike (BD) Ltd. can file a suit claiming injunction. Along with claiming damages and injunction Nike (BD) Ltd. can also apply for cancellation of the instrument. If one or more of the major provisions of a contract is broken the party suffering from it can apply for cancellation of the instrument. If one or more of the minor provisions is broken the sufferer party can apply for damages but not cancellation of the instrument.In this case Sunshine Fabrics has broken a major provision of the contract. So, Nike (BD) Ltd. can apply for cancellation of the instrument. In reply of Nike (BD) Ltd. s legal notice Sunshine Fabrics asserts that the contract which they signed with Nike (BD) Ltd. is, in fact, void, in as much as, the same is in restraint of trade. Sunshine F abrics effrontery is however unjustified. The agreement stating -the Sunshine Fabrics would not sell to his other customers for a period of 2 age any T-shirt of the same design and description is not in restraint of trade kinda merely restraining freedom of action.Thus we can conclude that, every thing else being equal, the case is in very much favor of Nike (BD) Ltd. Sunshine Fabrics claim of the contracts being void has no legal grounds. However, if Sunshine Fabrics can anyway prove that its agreement of not selling any T-shirt of the same description to its other customers for a period of 2 years was a minor provision of the contract, Nike (BD) would not be able to cancel the contract but still would be awarded damage and, on the Courts discretion, injunction.